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Physical Activity Module

Physical Activity | Participation DL Wolfe, PhD; K Arbour-Nicitopoulos, PhD; C Craven, MD; K Martin Ginis, PhD; and the E-Scan Investigative Team Physical activity, as defined by the World Health Organization, is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Physical activity may be initiated by voluntary contraction of muscles or involuntary action of muscles, through technologies, including: orthotics, functional electrical stimulation (FES), robotic-controlled devices or aids that compensate for weak or paralyzed muscles. Routine participation in physical activity can enhance or maintain physical fitness, improve health, and enhance wellbeing. Although these health-related objectives may not be the individual’s primary goal for getting active, physical activity enhances respiratory, cardiovascular and bone health, and prevents or reduces secondary health conditions including depression, pain and spasticity.1,2 Physical activity at the recommended frequency, intensity and duration is crucial to health and wellbeing among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Within a health promotion context, leisure-time physical activities are those one chooses to do in one’s free time, including sports, structured fitness activities and unstructured activities (e.g., wheeling around a park) and excludes activities associated with therapy, work or daily living. Figure 2.0 illustrates the relationships between key determinants of leisure-time physical activity participation, including outcome expectations (expected benefits), and self-regulation efficacy (confidence to adopt strategies, goals and plans.3 These concepts originate from social cognitive theory4 and are key drivers of self-regulation of leisure-time physical activity. Figure 2.0 Key Determinants of Leisure Time Physical Activity. Thicker lines reflect constructs that have been shown to have statistically significant correlations. (Adapted with permission from Martin Ginis et al. 2011). Figure 2.0 Key Determinants of Leisure-Time Physical Activity. (Thicker lines reflect constructs that have ben shown to have statistical y significant corelations ) Reproduced with permision from Martin Ginis et al.3 © 2011 The Society of Behavioral Medicine. Social Support Leisure Time Physical Acvity Self-Regulatory Efficacy Task Self-Efficacy Outcome Expectaons Self-Regulaon Rehabilitation providers enable physical activity among individuals with SCI in two ways: (1) direct provision of adapted physical activity programs (see Figure 1.0 Seated Aerobics), and health-promotional activities that encourage participation and remove barriers to participation. These activities are typically conducted during inpatient rehabilitation or outpatient programs that target individuals living in the community. In general, the primary focus of Canadian SCI rehab programs has been provision of adapted physical activity programs. To date, limited time, attention and resources are dedicated to health promotion activities, despite their increased potential for sustaining physical activity over an individual’s lifetime. Figure 1.0 SEATED AEROBICS. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY | PARTICIPATION 167


Physical Activity Module
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