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Table 5.0 contains citations for the assessment tools presented or discussed in this chapter. It is important to note that many of the tools presented are generic and may be administered, scored and interpreted by any member of the rehab team, while others require discipline– specific expertise to administer, score and interpret. Table 5.0 Resources for Emotional Welbeing Assesments Tools (contains references for tools described in Table 2.0, and the ‘required tols ’ in Table 4.0) Future Clinical Directions • Conduct research to determine which interventions and resources are most effective for treating psychological distress/depression, in individuals with SCI • Develop clinical practice guidelines for areas of emotional wellbeing, including screening and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or substance abuse. Future Research • Determine which affective and cognitive factors (e.g., self-efficacy, coping styles, mood, etc.) best predict emotional wellbeing, following SCI • Examine the impact of poor versus optimal emotional wellbeing, following SCI, on various outcomes in both rehabilitation (e.g., motivation to participate in therapy, functional independence, etc.) and community settings (e.g., pain, quality of life, development of secondary complications) • Examine the impact of mediating factors, such as pre-existing emotional sequelae, family history, social-supports and access to resources (geographic location); motor vehicle insurance funding for private resources and ability to advocate for services • Develop and validate assessments among individuals with SCI, to improve accuracy of diagnosis and the ability to monitor outcomes. Future Policy Initiatives • Ensure access to care, for individuals with SCI, who have depression or require intervention to optimize their emotional wellbeing. Assesment Tool Citation Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Beck AT, et al. Arch Gen Psychiat. 1961;4:561-71. CAGE Questionnaire Ewing JA. JAMA. 1984;252:1905-7. Centre for Epidemiological Studies Radloff LS. Appl Psych Meas. 1977; Depression Scale (CESD) 1(3):385-401. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) Engler NS, Parker JDA. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS): Manual (Revised Edition). Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems; 1999. Depression and Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) Brown TA, et al. Behav Res Ther. 1997;35:79-89. General Anxiety Disorder-7 Spitzer RL, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-7. Geriatric Depression Scale Yesavage JA, et al. J Psychiatr Res. 1982; 17(1):37-49. Sheikh JI, et al. Clin Gerontol. 1986; 5(1/2):165-73. Michigan Alcohol Screening Test -(MAST) Selzer ML, Am J Psych. 1975;3:176-81. Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) Sheehan DV, et al. J Clin Psychiat. 1998;59(Suppl. 20):22-33; quiz 34-57. Opioid Risk Tool Webster LR, Webster RM. Pain Med. 2005;6(6):432-42. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Kroenke K, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606-13. Kroenke K, et al. Psych Annals. 2002; 32:509-21. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory (PTSD) Solomon Z, et al. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1993;30(2):110-5. Primary Care Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) Prins A, et al. Prim Care Psychiatr. 2003;9:9-14. State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Spielberger CD, et al. Manual for the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.; 1983. Structure Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) First MB, et al. Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version (SCID-CV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 1996. EMOTIONAL WELLBEING | BODY STRUCTURE AND FNUCTION 105


J - Emotional Wellbeing
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